Posted by Louise on May 05, 2000

In Reply to: Nightmare posted by ESC on April 01, 2000

: : : Does anyone know the origin of the term "Nightmare"? I've also heard it could have originally been used as "Riding the Night Mare".

: : From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary :

: : Mare \Mare\, n. [AS. mara incubus; akin to OHG. & Icel. mara;
: : cf. Pol. mora, Bohem. m[*u]ra.] (Med.)
: : Sighing, suffocative panting, intercepted utterance, with a
: : sense of pressure across the chest, occurring during sleep;
: : the incubus; -- obsolete, except in the compound nightmare.
: :
: : "I will ride thee o' nights like the mare." --Shakespeare

: : The word is an old one. The OED2 attests to nightmare as early as c. 1290. Night is recorded as early as c. 825, but it is such a basic word that it is likely far older than surviving manuscripts. Mare is dated as early as c. 700. Mare also has cognates in many languages, including Dutch, German, French, Polish, and Czech, and ultimately derives from the Indo-European root *mer-, meaning to rub away or to harm. *mer- is also the root of murder and mortal.

: : Mare is simply an Old English term for a demon. So a nightmare is a demon that visits you at night--a scary dream. A mare was a demon, known as an incubus (male) or succubus (female) that descended on a sleeper, paralyzing and suffocating them, and had sexual relations with the sleeper. Over the centuries the meaning has become generalized to any frightening dream.

: I've also seen the expression "hag-ridden." Hag for hagge, pre 1200, probably a shortening of Old English haegtesse, hegtes, witch, fury.

: But back to nightmare. A little fellow of our acquaintence had a bad dream. He told his mother that, "A nightmare scratched me on the back." So now in my family if someone has a bad dream, we say, "Did a nightmare scratch you on the back?"

I have heard Hag ridden used in reference to horses. It was an old fashioned term used to describe a horse that had got into a sweat in its stable overnight. Implying that witches or fairies had been hammering it about during the night causing exhaustion.
These days if it happens at all, its attributed to the horse not being cooled off properly or fed too soon after exercise.
I guess the witches have moved on to cars.